Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
Etymology: Grammonus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, onos = hake; thielei: Named for Werner Thiele, who photographed and caught the holotype. More on authors: Nielsen & Cohen.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 2 - 25 m (Ref. 56143), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 21°C - 25°C (Ref. 56143)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Pacific: Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56143); 15.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 41. Diagnosis: Fin rays in dorsal 66; anal 41; pectoral 21. Vertebrae 11 + 27 (ural elements counted as 1). Head length 33% SL. One large lateral line pore (equal to posterior supraorbital pore) near angle of opercle. The caudal fin is free of the dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 56143).
Observed in limestone caves and sinkholes which are probably connected at depths between 2 and 30 meters; often in lightless chambers without current, few are found at the entrance of caves where they hide beneath rock ledges. No reaction to torchlight was shown and escape distance was only about 2 centimeters; mostly were seen motionless, with only a slight movement of the fins maintaining the fishes' position (Ref. 56143).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G. and D.M. Cohen, 2004. Grammonus thielei (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae) - a new bythitid cavefish from off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Beagle 20:83-86. (Ref. 56143)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00179 - 0.01169), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .