Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 8°N, 65°E - 143°E
Indo-West Pacific: Hooghly River, Ganges system, West Bengal, India, and likely from the vicinity of Karachi, Pakistan. Reported from Taiwan. (Ref. 5193)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 204 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Biology poorly known. But its minute eyes suggest that it may be adapted to turbid water with poor visibility, as in large tropical rivers and muddy estuaries. Newborn specimens are from 56 to 61 cm long. Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Its notoriety may have stemmed from its widespread confusion with C. leucas. But this species is potentially dangerous as well because of its size and large teeth, though its reputation as a man-eater is still unproven.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.1, mean 26.3 °C (based on 141 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00218 - 0.01003), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .