Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Laviniinae
Etymology: Gila: A river flowing from SW Mejico to south Arizona. More on author: Cope.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 42°N - 31°N
North America: Upper Rio Grande and Pecos River systems in Colorado and New Mexico, USA; isolated populations in Davis Mountains (Pecos River system) in Texas, USA. Introduced into headwaters of Canadian River (Red River drainage) in New Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8. Gila pandora can be distinguished by the following characters: lateral line with 51-67 scales; dorsal fin with 8 rays; anal fin with 8 rays; 1st gill arch with 6-10 rakers; pharyngeal teeth 2,5-4,2; slightly subterminal mouth, extending to front of large eye; rounded, fairly blunt snout; fairly deep, compressed body; deep caudal peduncle; olive-gray above; 2 dusky stripes along silver sides (darkest on large individual), upper one extending to caudal fin, lower one to anal fin; and dusky to black caudal spot. Breeding individuals with red-orange (brightest in males) anal, dorsal and paired fin bases and side of head; orange lower side (Ref. 86798).
Inhabits flowing pools of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Occurs usually near brush (Ref. 5723, 86798). Mid-water carnivore; feeds on zooplankton, aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, juvenile fish, and a limited amount of detritus (Ref. 79012).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00439 - 0.02869), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .