Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 35°N - 32°N
North America: Malibu and San Juan creeks, and Los Angeles, San Gabriel, San Luis Rey, Santa Ana, and Santa Margarita River drainages in California, USA. Introduced north to Santa Ynez River and Mojave (Death Valley basin) River drainage in California.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7. Gila orcuttii can be distinguised by the following characters: lateral line with 48-62 scales; dorsal fin with 8 rays; anal fin with 7 rays; pharyngeal teeth 2,5-4,2; small, slightly subterminal mouth; short, rounded snout; large eye; deep body; deep caudal peduncle; gray-olive above; often a dusky gray stripe along silver side (Ref. 86798).
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms of flowing pools and runs of headwaters creeks and small to medium rivers. Often found in intermittent streams (Ref. 86798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Vulnerable (VU) (B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)); Date assessed: 09 February 2012
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00441 - 0.02856), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).