Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Gerres: Latin, gerres = a kind of anchovies; cited by Plinius.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 93032), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: Mexico (southern Baja and the lower Gulf of California) to Peru, and the Galapagos.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93032)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7. Body color silvery white with about 8 faint dark bars on side, pelvic and anal fins are yellowish; body deep (depth 2.3-2.7 in SL); highly extensible mouth, pointing downward when protruded; lower border of preopercle is smooth, bone under front of eye with smooth border; D IX,10; A II,7; large scales conspicuous and finely rough, covering most of the head and body; 39-44 lateral line scales (Ref. 93032).
Inhabits sand bottoms adjacent to reefs and also entering brackish estuaries (Ref. 93032). Feeds on insects (Ref. 93032).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robertson, D.R., 2013. Shorefishes or the tropical eastern Pacific online information system: Fishes. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. http://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/sftep/taxon.php [Accessed 25/02/2013]. (Ref. 93032)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 29, mean 26.4 °C (based on 231 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00672 - 0.02357), b=3.01 (2.85 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .