Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 52°N - 41°N
Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Massachusetts, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951); common length : 3.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 1.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults occur near shore in beds of vegetation, often around floating vegetation a short distance from shore. Rarely enter fresh water (Ref. 7251). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.3 - 9, mean 6.2 °C (based on 188 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00398 - 0.02628), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .