Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Fundulidae
(Topminnows and killifishes)
Etymology: Fundulus: Latin, fundus = bottom; a peculiar name for a topminnow, coined for a bottom species of Atlantic coast being "the abode of the fundulus mudfish" (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory. Subtropical
Western Central Atlantic: Endangered and endemic species found in Bermuda with highly fragmented populations and a very limited range (Ref. 59049).
Fundulus bermudae is believed to be a descendant of the Fundulus heteroclitus - F. grandis species group originating from populations on the east coast of North America (Ref. 59062). It is presently believed that none of the killifish ponds in Bermuda contain mixed populations of Fundulus bermudae and F. relictus.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - 9.8 cm
Max length : 12.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59051); common length : 6.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59051); max. published weight: 17.00 g (Ref. 59049); max. published weight: 17.00 g
A euryhaline species found only in a limited number of small, isolated fresh water, brackish water, and marine ponds (Ref. 59051). Recent study confines the distribution of this species to seven small, anchialine ponds in Bermuda (Ref. 59049). Total estimated population is 15,200 individuals in Mangrove Lake which is the largest anchialine pond in Bermuda (Ref. 59049). Non-annual killifish (Ref. 27139). May form loose schools consisting of equally sized individuals (Ref. 59051). An omnivorous fish, feeding on filamentous green algae, plant material, mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 59156). The main predators include a variety of birds (mostly herons), and fishes (eastern mosquito fish Gambusia holbrooki, gray snapper Lutjanus griseus, and American eel, Anguilla rostrata). Additionally, it is believed that the introduced and invasive red-eared terrapin Trachemys scripta elegans is a significant predator in a limited number of ponds (Ref. 59051). Spawning period occurs from February to September in Mangrove Lake, with primary peaks in May and June for males and females, respectively (Ref. 59049).
Huber, J.H., 1996. Killi-Data 1996. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Atherinomorpha, Pisces). Société Française d'Ichtyologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 399 p. (Ref. 27139)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00259 - 0.01467), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 108).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .