Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 5286). Subtropical; 23°S - 35°S, 12°E - 31°E
Southeastern Atlantic to Western Indian Ocean: southern Africa (Walvis Bay to Durban) to southern Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91762)
soft rays: 12 - 13;
Vertebrae: 50. Numerous branchiostegal rays (11 to 15); without pre-and post pelvic scutes; W-shaped pelvic scute; rectangular pre-maxillae; pelvic fins less advanced and the isthmus with lateral flanges or `shoulders' as compared to Dussumieria.
Mainly an inshore species. Often forms shoals together with pilchard (Ref. 27121). Feeds on larger types of zooplankton (Ref. 27121).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
DiBattista, J.D., J.E. Randall and B.W. Bowen, 2012. Review of the round herrings of the genus Etrumeus (Clupeidae: Dussumieriinae) of Africa, with descriptions of two new species. Cybium 36(3):447-460. (Ref. 91762)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 20.2, mean 15.6 (based on 31 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5098 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00192 - 0.01138), b=3.11 (2.89 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .