Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes
(Sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Etmopteridae
Etymology: Etmopterus: Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve or ethmoides bone + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 70 - 2490 m (Ref. 106604), usually 200 - 500 m. Deep-water; 75°N - 48°S, 42°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Norway, and the western Mediterranean to Morocco, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire to Nigeria, Cameroon to Gabon, Azores, Cape Verde, and Cape Province, South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 34.5, range 33 - 36 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); max. published weight: 850.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Found on the outer continental shelves and upper slopes. Feeds on small fishes, squids, and crustaceans. Ovoviviparous, with number of young from 6 to 20 in a litter. Utilized for fishmeal and prepared dried salted for human consumption. Depth range reported at 70m-2000m in Ref. 35388.
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.8 - 14.2, mean 9.2 °C (based on 392 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00279 - 0.00412), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.7 [2.8, 47.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.31 [0.08, 0.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.7, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.333 [0.128, 1.010] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.1 [4.3, 42.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.9 [5.0, 63.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.333 [0.159, 0.711] mg/100g (wet weight);