Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); fusiforme: fusiform meaning tapering at each end, spindle shaped (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 14°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059); 44°N - 26°N
North America: Seaboard Lowlands, Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from southern Maine to Louisiana (Sabine River) and southeastern Oklahoma (Red River) in the USA; and Former Mississippi Embayment north to Kentucky and southeastern Missouri in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 4.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 1.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Occur in standing or slow-flowing water over mud, sometimes sand; often in vegetation (Ref. 5723, 10294). Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00232 - 0.01243), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .