Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 0 - 680 m (Ref. 50610). Deep-water; 62°N - 36°N, 127°E - 121°W
North Pacific: Japan and Bering Sea to Monterey Bay in California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 12.3 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 91.0 kg (Ref. 2850)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 10 - 12. Body stout. Head round on dorsal profile. Dorsal fin separated by a space less than eye diameter. anal fin without a distinct spine. Young fish with striking white blotches on body. Color changes to dark gray.
Adults inhabit deep rocky bottoms offshore (Ref. 6885). Juveniles associated with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hart, J.L., 1973. Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.8 - 7, mean 4.1 °C (based on 300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.2500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01084 - 0.03350), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 14.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .