Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 89707), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 9°N, 32°E - 55°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Indian Ocean: known only from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Ref. 5222). Reported from Somalia and Socotra (Yemen).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Body robust. Serrae at the angle of the preopercle slightly enlarged; the upper edge of the operculum strongly convex. Posterior nostril of adults vertically elongate. Very similar to E. ongus which has longer pectoral fins, and a narrow white margin with broad blackish submarginal band on the median fins, which are absent or poorly developed in E. summana. Generally dark olive-brown to dark brownish gray with large pale blotches (most larger than the eye) and numerous small white spots overlying this pattern. Fins covered with small white spots, except for pectoral fins where the white spots are confined to the base.
Occurs in shallow protected coral reefs and in lagoons or brackish-water environments (Ref. 5222). No published information on the biology of this species has been found (Ref. 5222). Sold fresh in local markets (Ref. 5222).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 150 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00558 - 0.02364), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.3 [15.2, 83.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.633 [0.302, 1.467] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [15.7, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.246 [0.121, 0.502] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.2 [15.6, 77.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 262 [59, 1,127] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.72 [1.02, 2.83] mg/100g (wet weight);