Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acropomatiformes
() > Epigonidae
Etymology: Epigonus: Greek, epi = over, in front + Greek, gonio = angle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 75 - 1200 m (Ref. 4738), usually 300 - 800 m (Ref. 4738). Deep-water; 65°N - 43°S
North Atlantic: Iceland to the Canary Islands and Corner Seamounts. One specimen off North America (Ref. 7321). Southeast Atlantic, Indian and Southwest Pacific: Walvis Ridge off southwestern Africa to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 56.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5755); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 104 years (Ref. 39263)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 9. No opercular spines. 8 spines on first dorsal fin (Ref. 31632). Snout blunt, eye large. Mouth large, lower jaw equaling or slightly protruding beyond upper jaw. Pyloric caeca 21-34. Brown-violet or black, iridescent in life.
Adults benthic or benthopelagic on the continental slopes; juveniles pelagic (Ref. 7321). Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 27121). Non-territorial. Carnivorous, feed on small fishes and planktonic invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A. and G.F. Mayer, 1990. Apogonidae. p. 714-718. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 13.8, mean 8.9 °C (based on 755 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01145 - 0.03321), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 28.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tmax=104).
Prior r = 0.14, 95% CL = 0.08 - 0.26, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .