Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Tetraodontinae
Etymology: Ephippion: Greek, ephippion, horse cloth, saddle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bennett.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 10001), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 42°N - 13°S, 18°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar and extreme western Mediterranean southward along the entire west coast of Africa to Angola, near Benguela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7059); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 4.3 kg (Ref. 4699)
Common in shallow coastal waters, also in estuaries (Ref. 2683), bays and lagoons, as well as in offshore trawling stations. Feeds on crabs, echinoids and mollusks (Ref. 10001). Occurs over hard substrate (Ref. 5377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Shipp, R.L., 1990. Tetraodontidae. p. 1069-1072. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7464)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 27.9, mean 25.7 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00720 - 0.03654), b=2.90 (2.71 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.3 [28.3, 184.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.82, 2.55] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.659 [0.267, 1.460] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.9 [18.2, 89.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.77 [3.44, 27.51] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.894 [0.592, 1.409] mg/100g (wet weight);