Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Enteromius: Greek, enteron = intestine + Greek, myo, mys = muscle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 7248). Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468); 9°S - 30°S
Africa: Zambezi River system, Lake Ngami and Cubango rivers; Lake Malawi and the Ruo River; Lake Bangweulu and associated rivers; Luapula and upper Lualaba rivers; Orange, Limpopo, Comati and Vaal Rivers systems; Kunene and Cubango Rivers (Ref. 2801). East coast from Ruvuma, Tanzania to Umvoti, Natal, also Orange, Cunene and Zambian Congo systems (Ref. 7248).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 8 - 7.5 cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Found in shallow water near river outlets or close to swampy areas (Ref. 5595). Hardy, commonly occurs in a wide variety of habitats, especially where there is vegetation. Feeds on insects and other small organisms. Used as bait for the tigerfish. Breeds in summer, shoals of ripe adults moving upstream in spate after rain. Females produce as many as 8,000 eggs (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00782 - 0.02551), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.40).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .