Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Encrasicholina: Greek, egkrasicholos, -os, -on = mixed with spleen. More on author: Whitley.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 13 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 32°N - 28°S, 43°E - 173°W (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: widespread in the northern part of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden, but apparently not the Red Sea nor Kenya, the Persian Gulf, India, Andaman Islands) and Western Central Pacific (Indonesia, Thailand, north to at least Taiwan Island, south to northern Australia; also eastward to Fiji and Tonga).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.6, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189); common length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. reported age: 1.70 years (Ref. 2178)
soft rays: 18 - 20. Diagnosis: Body rather cylindrical, belly rounded, with 5-6, rarely 3 or 4, sharp needle-like pre-pelvic scutes; maxilla tip pointed, projecting beyond second supra-maxilla and reaching to sub-operculum; isthmus short, preceded by a small bony plate on urohyal between branchial membranes; lower gillrakers 20-27; unbranched dorsal and anal finrays 3, anal fin short, with usually 15-17 branched finrays; in life, a bright silver band on flank, with a thin blue line above, back blue/grey (Ref. 189). It closely resembles Encrasicholina heteroloba, which has only 2 unbranched dorsal and anal finrays, a dull silver/grey band on flank, and the back beige; Encrasicholina oligobranchus has only 17-18 gillrakers; other species of Encrasicholina have a fleshy urohyal plate and a maxilla tip blunt and not projecting beyond the second supra-maxilla; species of Stolephorus have a long isthmus reaching to the margin of the branchial membrane (Ref. 189).
Schooling species. Coastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). Occurs in estuarine and inshore waters. Probably feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans. Breeds throughout the year, with peaks in New Ireland waters during May to June or July and possibly also in September to November. Eggs are oval, without a knob at one end.
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3195 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00454 - 0.00635), b=3.12 (3.07 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.5 (0.5 - 0.7) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 11 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=2.00-5.04; tm=0.29; tmax=1.7).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 332 [96, 934] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.72 [0.62, 4.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.2, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.502 [0.184, 1.455] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.1 [10.0, 267.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43 [9, 268] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.37 [1.19, 4.91] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.