Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Eleginus: Greek, eleginos, -ou = a fish of the Nile (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 1371). Polar; 74°N - 62°N, 33°E - 83°E (Ref. 1371)
Arctic: White, Barents and Kara seas and from the Kola Bay to the Ob inlet.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72462)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Lateral line continuous to about the origin of the second dorsal fin. Head with no lateral line pores. Expanded parapophyses swollen and hollow, beginning on about vertebral centrum 5, containing outpouchings of the swim bladder. Brownish dorsally, becoming paler ventrally; with small dark blotches.
Lives in the coastal sublittoral zone of the White Sea and Arctic coasts of Europe where it reflects a broad adaptation to the ecological conditions of the Arctic (Ref. 1371). Found at shallow depths, along shores with soft, muddy bottoms, close to the ice and on the continental shelf (Ref. 1371). Often caught in greatly freshened and at times completely fresh water, entering mouths and tidal zones of rivers and traveling upstream (Ref. 1371). Feeds mainly on crustaceans and worms, but takes small fishes (Ref. 1371). Taxonomic problems to be solved.
Females produce about 6,000-90,000 eggs per year. From the shores, enters river mouths over sandy or rocky bottoms for spawning. Spawning sites are distributed in channels between islands or in depressions between the shore and shallow banks with strong tidal currents.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.2 - 2, mean 0 °C (based on 80 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00427 - 0.01071), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3-4; Fec=20,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.1 [12.2, 72.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.475 [0.236, 0.977] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.8 [14.2, 17.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.774 [0.319, 1.954] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [6.6, 46.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.6 [5.7, 144.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.491 [0.300, 0.833] mg/100g (wet weight);