Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical; 59°N - 20°N, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: North Sea to the Mediterranean, Morocco and Madeira. Reported from the Canary Islands (Ref. 3397).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4675); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)
Body elongate. Coloration grey-brown on the back and silvery-white on the sides. No spines in front of the eyes (Ref. 35388).
Littoral and benthic, on sandy, muddy or gravelly bottoms, from a few meters to about 150 m (in winter). Rest on the bottom, often buried with eyes and tip of first dorsal fin exposed. Considered as the most dangerous of the European weevers, both for its poison and for its frequent occurrence very near to beaches (Ref. 4675). There are venom glands on the first dorsal fin, which is totally black, and on the gill cover (Ref. 6790). Also Ref. 57406.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roux, C., 1990. Trachinidae. p. 893-895. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.3 - 16.1, mean 10.5 °C (based on 734 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00206 - 0.01219), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .