Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Caesionidae
(Fusiliers) > Gymnocaesioninae
Etymology: Dipterygonotus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin + Greek, gono, gone = birth + Greek, noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 37 - 91 m (Ref. 26165), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 24°S, 43°E - 163°E (Ref. 402)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa, not including the Red Sea or Arabian (Persian) Gulf, to the Solomon Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 402)
Primarily a near-shore pelagic species (Ref. 30573), but swims mainly in open water away from reefs (Ref. 48636). Forms dense aggregations (Ref. 90102). Mixed with other planktivores and is easily overlooked. Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 30573). Oviparous, with numerous, small pelagic eggs (Ref. 402). Caught at night using lights and dip nets (Ref. 30573). Important tuna bait fish in some countries (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E., 1987. Revision of the Indo-Pacific fish family Caesionidae (Lutjanoidea), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (15):56 p. (Ref. 1723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.8 - 28.4, mean 27.4 °C (based on 421 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.7 [57.2, 208.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.07 [0.70, 1.61] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.2, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.175 [0.111, 0.275] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 102 [41, 248] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [1.01, 2.01] mg/100g (wet weight);