Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Pacific Ocean: Viet Nam to Rarotonga (Cook Islands), north to southeastern China and the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and Norfolk Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
soft rays: 7. Unbranched infraorbital canal, very short upward and downward branches of lateral line. Anal fin dark with many darker spots (Ref. 37424). First dorsal spine is extended with a filament in males. This species has double series of small pearly spots along lower sides (Ref. 48636).
Inhabits coastal bays and estuaries (Ref. 48636), over sand, mud, or dead coral rubble of lagoons and outer reef slopes. Feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates. Usually buried in substrate. Occurs in small groups (Ref. 48636). May also be solitary (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00361 - 0.01750), b=2.80 (2.62 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .