Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 3688), usually 30 - 50 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 38°N - 13°N, 27°W - 5°W
Southwestern Mediterranean Sea (Malaga to Gibraltar); eastern Atlantic from Cape Verde Islands north to Cadiz (Spain).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781)
Gregarious. Inhabits the upper portion of the continental shelf from the coastline to 100 m depth, but especially from 30 to 50 m. Occurs on various types of bottom. Sometimes forms sizeable aggregations. Feeds on small benthic mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 4781). Important food fish. Minimum depth range from Ref. 113561.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 21.6, mean 18.9 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01151 - 0.01656), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 97.5 [53.0, 186.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.07 [0.50, 1.91] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.7, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.345 [0.195, 0.614] g/100g ; Selenium = 24 [12, 46] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24 [8, 68] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.991 [0.620, 1.462] mg/100g (wet weight);