Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gray.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 85 m (Ref. 11230), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: South China Sea (Amoy, Canton, Kowloon, Hong Kong and Shanton) through Taiwan, Shanghai, Tunghai and Pohai to Korea and Japan. Known from Shizuoka Prefecture to the South China Sea (Ref. 559). Also found in Indonesia (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 37.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33837); max. published weight: 251.80 g (Ref. 124479)
Body comparatively deep (23 to 28% SL). Maxilla extending only to point equal with verticals through middle and posterior margin of fixed eye. Corner of mouth nearer to tip of snout than to branchial opening (Ref 9895).
Found in the sublittoral zone incl. semi-enclosed sea areas; inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf and feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 2107, 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Menon, A.G.K., 1977. A systematic monograph of the tongue soles of the genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces: Cynoglossidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (238):1-129. (Ref. 5297)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.9 - 28.6, mean 27.5 °C (based on 561 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00193 - 0.00432), b=3.17 (3.05 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .