Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Gonostomatidae
Etymology: Cyclothone: Greek, kyklothen, in circle, around (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 10 - 2000 m (Ref. 27000), usually 200 - 900 m (Ref. 33390). Deep-water; 67°N - 40°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters, including the Mediterranean. Also known from the temperate North Atlantic as far as 66°N and in the sub-Antarctic water south of Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 2 - ? cm
Max length : 2.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5162); 3.8 cm SL (female); max. reported age: 1.00 years (Ref. 5162)
Oceanic, precise depth range dependent upon developmental stage, latitude, season (Ref. 4769). Generally horizontally oriented (Ref. 4769). Feeds on small zooplankton, mostly copepods (Ref. 5162). Sexually dimorphic with large females and small males (Ref. 9503). Sex ratio vary with size groups but is about 1:1 around spawning. Length-frequency histograms are bimodal; has a two-year life cycle (Ref. 82363).
Badcock, J., 1984. Gonostomatidae. p. 284-301. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 1. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4769)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.9 - 16.3, mean 9.3 °C (based on 2108 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00170 - 0.00811), b=3.09 (2.89 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.18 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2; Fec=200).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).