Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Ctenosciaena: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 130 m (Ref. 9626), usually 10 - 80 m (Ref. 3702). Tropical; 0°C - ; 13°N - 34°S, 77°W - 38°W
Western Atlantic: Nicaragua along the Caribbean coast and Atlantic coasts of South America to southern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 77.20 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Body silvery, grey on back and white on belly. Inside of opercle lining black, appearing as a dark triangular blotch externally. Base of pectoral fin and axil with a dark spot. Upper half of spinous dorsal fin dusky. Other fins pale. Mouth moderately large, slightly inferior. Tip of chin with a pointed flexible barbel. Gas bladder carrot-shaped, without appendages. Sagitta (large earstone) thick and ovoid, lapillus (small earstone) rudimentary (Ref 51721).
Inhabits coastal waters, usually over sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 3702). Feeds mainly on shrimps (Ref. 3702). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.1 - 27.8, mean 26.1 °C (based on 290 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00789 - 0.00961), b=3.08 (3.05 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 199 [107, 367] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.83 [0.43, 1.49] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.279 [0.146, 0.482] g/100g ; Selenium = 58.4 [27.5, 111.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38 [13, 119] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.22 [0.80, 1.88] mg/100g (wet weight);