Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Craterocephalinae
Etymology: Craterocephalus: Greek, krater, -eros = bowl, mixing vessel + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 11°S - 21°S
Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific: northern Australia, from Western Australia to Fraser Island, around the islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and northeast Queensland.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9760)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 1. Labial ligament inserting adjacent to symphysis of dentary. Lateral process of premaxilla pungent. Gill rakers on first lower gill arch, 13-17. Body scales on large specimens usually crenulated, midlateral scales 33-37. Black spot often present at base of pectoral fin.
Mainly coastal and estuarine, often schooling with C. capreoli, Atherinomorus endrachtensis and A. ogilbyi. Diet includes crustaceans and diatoms. Breeds from December to March throughout the southern hemisphere. Appears to have a one year life span. May be food fish for larger commercially important fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ivantsoff, W. and L.E.L.M. Crowley, 1999. Atherinidae. Silversides (or hardyheads). p. 2113-2139. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9760)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 28.7, mean 27.7 °C (based on 250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .