Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); darwini: Named for Charles Darwin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Subtropical
Southeast Pacific: Galápagos Arch. endemic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 3.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93094)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 51 - 58;
Vertebrae: 35. This small narrow-bodied species shares the characters for the genus; i.e., mostly straight lateral line, apparently uniserial and even-sized teeth, relatively long thin gill rakers with no serrations, urogenital papilla on the blind side, asymmetric pelvic fin placement with ocular-side fin-base along ventral midline (the Cyclopsetta group sensu Hensley and Ahlstrom 1984), and a medium-sized mouth with upper-jaw length greater than 30% HL (vs. less in Etropus). It is distinguished from its congeners by the low fin-ray counts, D 70-75 A 51-58; low numbers of slender gill rakers, 4-7+8-10 (usually 6+9 or 6+10); a narrow body with maximum body width in adults 39-45% SL; low numbers of pored lateral line scales, 41-42; vertebrae 10+25; firmly attached (non-deciduous) scales (Ref. 93094).
Only found on Isla Isabela which has distinctive oceanographic conditions. The island is directly over the Galápagos hotspot, recently has an active volcano, exceptionally dry, and has extensive local upwelling of colder deep water which occurs seasonally in the area. The unusual combination of colder water and particularly light erosion sedimentation due to low precipitation and rocky shores create a distinctive habitat. The Tagus Cove itself is a breached tuff cone and is characterized by coarse black sands (Ref. 93094).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Victor, B.C. and G.M. Wellington, 2013. Citharichthys darwini n. sp., a new endemic flatfish from the Galápagos Archipelago (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: Paralichthyidae). J. Ocean Sci. Found. 6:19-32. (Ref. 93094)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00335 - 0.01717), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .