Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 2 - ? m (Ref. 7335). Tropical; 20°C - 39°C (Ref. 35127); 27°N - 11°N, 98°W - 80°W (Ref. 55201)
Central America: Atlantic drainages from Mexico to Nicaragua.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.7, range 10 - 19 cm
Max length : 39.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabit freshwater marshes and mangrove swamps. Adults prefer coastal lagoons and rivers and will tolerate marine conditions. Feed on small fishes and macro-invertebrates (Ref. 7335). Spawn on the bottom in both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 35127).
Max. 600 eggs.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01833 - 0.03604), b=3.04 (2.95 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.20; tmax=7; Fec=2,085-6,615).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .