Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Chrysoblephus: Greek, chrysos = golden + Greek, blepo, blepharizo = to watch (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 3198). Tropical; 21°S - 28°S
Southeast Atlantic: northern Namibia to northern Natal, South Africa; also reported from Mauritius.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.1  range ? - 22.5 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); common length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); max. published weight: 4.2 kg (Ref. 3670)
Occurs above rocky bottoms in deeper water to 100 m but often caught from shore. Juveniles occur in shallow-water beds of seaweed where they feed on minute crustacean (Ref. 3670). Feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, worms and fish. Females transform into territorial males with growth (Ref. 3198). Voracious but sluggish, takes any bait. Good food fish (Ref. 3198). Sold fresh (Ref. 3507). It is parasitised by the monogenean Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis on the fins and body surface (Ref. 124057).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Also Ref. 28504.
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: potential
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01107 - 0.02856), b=3.00 (2.86 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 99.9 [55.9, 195.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.632 [0.288, 1.226] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.254 [0.141, 0.460] g/100g ; Selenium = 54.2 [27.1, 113.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.9 [6.2, 69.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.794 [0.480, 1.260] mg/100g (wet weight);