Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 10797). Subtropical; 46°N - 12°S, 32°W - 36°E
Mediterranean Sea: Eastern Atlantic: Along the coast of Portugal to the Gulf of Guinea (St. Thomas Island = São Tomé Island), may also reach Angola. Quoted mainly in the islands (Azores, Salvage, Canary, Annobon, etc.) than on the continent.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10797); common length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10797)
Adults form small shoals in midwater above or near rocky reefs or above seagrass meadows (Posidonia. They feed on small planktonic or benthic animals (Ref. 6760). Reproduce in summer (Ref. 6760). Eggs characterized by adhesive filaments are nested on rocky or sandy bottoms (Ref. 6760). Males guard the eggs (Ref. 6760).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Breed on rocky or sandy bottoms (Ref. 6760). Males guard the eggs (Ref. 6760).
Loris, D. and J. Rucabado, 1990. Pomacentridae. p. 842-850. In J.C. Quéro, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10797)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.2 - 27.8, mean 20.1 °C (based on 208 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01087 - 0.01674), b=2.93 (2.87 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .