Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 5 - 10 m (Ref. 559). Temperate; 53°N - 18°N, 105°E - 146°E
Northwest Pacific: Hokkaido southward to Kyushu, Japan; Amur River southward to Xiamen through the Korean Peninsula (Ref. 41299). Reported from Vietnam (Ref. 9706). Introduced in the Aegean Sea (Ref. 113897), Black Sea and the Mediterranean (Ref. 101091).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 48 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 56557)
Adults inhabit shallow coastal waters as well as freshwater regions of rivers (Ref. 41299). Very common in the rivers discharging into Peter the Great Bay; enter freshwater. Large concentrations of fry-of-the-year measuring 3.1-6.2 cm in the mouths of rivers in August. Length in the Black Sea is usually 20-30 cm but may reach 43 cm; length in the Atlantic Ocean may reach 50 cm (Ref. 2058). Omnivorous (Ref. 9137). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Alien Invasive: In Azov Sea, it is now the most abundant mugilid species. Along shores of Black Sea, its expansion corresponds to a sharp decline of native species of Mugilidae, which it apparently replaces (Ref. 59043).
Juveniles spend their first year in freshwater then migrate to sea to breed (Ref. 59043). Also Ref. 205.
Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. (Ref. 9137)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.2 - 25, mean 22.4 °C (based on 103 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00604 - 0.01376), b=2.95 (2.83 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.19 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.7 [12.5, 76.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.538 [0.301, 1.226] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.2, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 1.5 [0.6, 3.5] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.5 [6.4, 40.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.14 [1.96, 44.39] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.897 [0.568, 1.524] mg/100g (wet weight);