Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Caulophrynidae
Etymology: Caulophryne: Greek, 'kaulos' or 'caulis' = stem + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (according to Goode and Bean (1896): "a 'phryne'-like fish with the cephalic tentacle supported on a stemlike base") ( Ref. 86949).. More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 900 - 1250 m (Ref. 58302), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Eastern Atlantic: a single female with a parasitic male recorded from northeast of the Azores (Ref. 13584) and one record east of Cape Verde; reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462) and Namibia (Ref. 27121). Also known from the northwest Atlantic and Indo-Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 1.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7398); 14.2 cm (female)
soft rays: 17 - 19. Metamorphosed females distinguished by the following characteristics: illicium with numerous elongate translucent filaments along length; length of illicium 15.7-32.1%SL; illicium lightly pigmented along anterior margin, bearing numerous elongate translucent filaments, most of which arise from posterior margin; esca consisting of posterolateral appendage with palmate, opaque, distal tip and tapering terminal appendage with opaque distal tip; highly filamentous escal appendages in specimens larger than 44 mm, number and length of filaments reduced in smaller specimens; dorsal fin rays 19-22; anal fin rays 17-19; pectoral fin rays 15-18; upper jaw teeth 26-45; lower jaw teeth 16-32; teeth on vomer 1-3 (Ref. 86949).
Meso- and bathypelagic at 0-2000 m fishing depths (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bertelsen, E., 1990. Caulophrynidae. p. 491. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 7398)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.2 - 5.8, mean 4.5 °C (based on 292 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5938 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .