Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Catathyridium: Greek, kata = down + Greek, diminutive, thyreos, -ou = a great stone used as door or shield (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 36798); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Southwest Atlantic: estuarine and marine coastal areas of southeastern Brazil, including salt and freshwater portions of Laguna dos Patos basin, Uruguay, and northern Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 36798)
Mainly found near river mouths and brackish lagoons (Ref. 36453). May enter fresh water (Ref. 36798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ramos, R.T.C., 2003. Achiridae (American soles). p. 666-669. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.5 - 23.9, mean 16.3 °C (based on 113 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00580 - 0.02864), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .