Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 59 m (Ref. 99978), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 30°S, 33°E - 134°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Gulf of Oman and along the African coast (to East London in South Africa, Ref. 3197) and the west coast of Madagascar to southern India and Sri Lanka. There are reliable reports from the Gulf of Thailand, Hong Kong, Okinawa and Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 3.5 kg (Ref. 4883)
Adults are found in coastal waters near corals and rocks, also in shallow lagoons (Ref. 30573). Solitary species on inshore reefs (Ref. 48635). Small groups frequently patrol perimeter of reefs (Ref. 90102). Juveniles may enter estuaries (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1984. Carangidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3287)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01182 - 0.03218), b=2.94 (2.81 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35 [16, 82] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.63 [0.70, 3.82] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.7, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.381 [0.169, 0.873] g/100g ; Selenium = 10.4 [3.3, 25.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 120 [12, 1,018] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.817 [0.419, 1.783] mg/100g (wet weight);