Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: ? - 8.2. Tropical; 26°C - 31°C (Ref. 40602)
South America: Atrato, Cauca and Magdalena River basins and Lake Maracaibo basin in Colombia. Introduced in the Orinoco River drainage in Venezuela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Body with dorsoventral bands; a black spot on the posterior region of the caudal peduncle, and another on the middle of the body, just below the lateral line (Ref. 26543).
Found in rivers, but prefers marshes or swamps abundant in aquatic plants (Ref. 26543). Feeds on other fishes and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 26543). Not common in the aquarium trade but occasionally imported (Ref. 12251).
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03162 (0.01969 - 0.05079), b=2.99 (2.86 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.85 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=3,439-10,986).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .