Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 59012); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 19°N - 15°S
Asia and Oceania: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea, Admiralty Islands, Micronesia (Pohnpei, Caroline Islands) and Australia. Reported from New Caledonia (Ref. 13246).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Found in freshwater, estuaries, inshore and mangrove (Ref. 86252). Adults occur on soft mud bottoms of rainforest creeks to elevations of at least 150 m. (Ref. 2847, 44894). They favor undercut banks for retreat. Probably has a pelagic marine larval stage (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.4 - 29.4, mean 28.8 °C (based on 981 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00436 - 0.02631), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .