Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Diceratiidae
(Double anglers (Ref. 07463) or Doublespine Seadevils (Ref. 86949))
Etymology: Bufoceratias: Latin, bufo or bufonis = toad + Greek, keras or keratos = horn, horned (referring to the hornlike lure projecting from the head) (Ref. 86949).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 300 - 1750 m (Ref. 40877), usually 300 - 1500 m (Ref. 6613). Deep-water; 0°C -
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to coastal waters off Suriname. Eastern Atlantic: off Portugal to coastal waters of Namibia, as far south as about 24°S. The single specimen recorded from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (Ref. 51075) is a misidentification of Bufoceratias thele.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL (female)
soft rays: 4. Metamorphosed females of Bufoceratias wedli differ from those of Bufoceratias shaoi in having a much smaller esca and a longer illicium (83-225% standard length versus 26-40% standard length), and from those of Bufoceratias thele in having distinct, anterior, posterior, and lateral escal appendages (Ref. 51070).
Mesopelagic and bathypelagic near or on continental shelf (Ref. 6939). Males and larvae unknown (Ref. 51070), probably dwarfed, non-parasitic (Ref. 6939). Minimum depth from Ref. 6613.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pietsch, T.W., H.-C. Ho and H.-M. Chen, 2004. Revision of the deep-sea anglerfish genus Bufoceratias Whitley (Lophiiformes: Ceratioidei: Diceratiidae), with description of a new species from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Copeia 2004(1):98-107. (Ref. 51070)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.8 - 11.6, mean 5.6 °C (based on 1239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6406 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .