Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Oxudercidae
(Mudskippers) > Periophthalminae
Etymology: Boleophthalmus: Name from Greek, ßoƛɛ for ejected and 'ophthalmos' for eye; refers to species capability to rapidly raise their eyes above the level of their orbital cavities, as if the eyes were being ejected.. More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: India to New Guinea and north to China (Ref. 12693). Also recorded from Sulaibikhat Bay, Persian Gulf (Ref. 80050).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Distinguished by the following characteristics: total elements in D2 24-26 (mean = 24.5);
caudal fin length 17.9-23.3% SL; head length 25.0-30.4% SL; length of D2 base 40.2-46.4% SL; first D2 element usually unsegmented and unbranched; longitudinal scale count 61-79; predorsal scales 25-35; lower jaw teeth notched (Ref. 5218).
Inhabits brackish water of estuaries and freshwater tidal zone. Occurs in burrows and is often found on mudflats in extremely shallow water where it browses on algae (Ref. 12693). Feeds on algae and harpacticoids (Ref. 92840). An intertidal and amphibious air-breather that actively shuttles back and forth between rock pools and air (Ref. 31184). Occasionally seen in markets (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Murdy, E.O., 1989. A taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the oxudercine gobies (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae). Rec. Aust. Mus., Suppl. 11:1-93. (Ref. 5218)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2745 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00476 - 0.01669), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .