Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Asia and Oceania: India, Sri Lanka, Ryukyu Islands, China, Taiwan, Viet Nam, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. Reported from Fiji (Ref. 12743). Record from Mauritius (Bleeker 1879) needs confirmation (Ref. 4343).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Adults inhabit clear streams, often in rainforest with mud, sand or gravel bottoms (Ref. 2847). Usually occur within 50 km of the sea (Ref. 2847).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.4 - 29.3, mean 28.9 °C (based on 1080 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00365 - 0.01726), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .