Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 92 - 641 m (Ref. 32364). Deep-water
Eastern Central Pacific: California, USA to Peru (Ref. 32364), extending to Chile (Ref. 9068).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Type specimen taken from a depth of 2,692 m (Ref. 33021). Oviparous, with planktonic leptocephali (Ref. 32364). Degenerative changes in males and females suggest semelparity (Ref. 32364).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pequeño, G., 1989. Peces de Chile. Lista sistematica revisada y comentada. Rev. Biol. Mar., Valparaiso 24(2):1-132. (Ref. 9068)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 13.8, mean 12.1 °C (based on 54 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5645 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .