Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 48637), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 31°S, 99°E - 175°W
Western Pacific: Borneo, Philippines, and northwest Australia to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New South Wales, Australia and Tonga.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Inhabits muddy substrates, usually shallow coastal slopes to about 20 meters depth and in shallow estuaries (Ref. 48637). Occurs in estuaries, sheltered reef flats, and lagoons to a depth of more than 17 m. Common in seagrass beds and sandy areas; juveniles found among mangroves (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2174 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01517 - 0.04562), b=2.85 (2.71 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 84.4 [29.1, 187.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.834 [0.440, 1.840] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.5, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.265 [0.114, 0.634] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.9 [11.6, 85.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 65.5 [15.7, 250.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.85, 2.31] mg/100g (wet weight);