Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Bothidae
Etymology: Arnoglossus: Greek, aros, -oy = lamb + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 300 m (Ref. 5979). Subtropical; 43°N - 6°N, 26°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Ireland (Ref. 4704) to Sierra Leone and Cape Verde. Also known from the western Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4704); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 32766)
soft rays: 61 - 69. Second ray of dorsal fin very long, with a conspicuous dark, fringed broad membrane. First 3 or 4 dorsal fin rays generally blackish in adults but only the elongate second ray is dark in immature fishes.
Found on the upper 100 m of the continental shelf. Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 4704). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 52678 but has been caught in depths inferior to 10m (Ref. 57407).
Aldebert, Y., M. Desoutter and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Bothidae. p. 1027-1036. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5979)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.7 - 18.6, mean 15.4 °C (based on 138 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00535 - 0.00855), b=3.08 (3.02 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.51-0.58; tm=2; tmax=10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 176 [81, 397] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.52 [0.89, 2.53] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.5, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.297 [0.152, 0.562] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.2 [14.4, 59.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.5 [4.0, 42.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.03 [0.69, 1.49] mg/100g (wet weight);