Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Bothidae
Etymology: Arnoglossus: Greek, aros, -oy = lamb + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 4704), usually 10 - 100 m (Ref. 35388). Subtropical; 62°N - 18°S, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Angola. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 32766)
soft rays: 74 - 82. Very thin body. None of the dorsal finrays are prolonged (Ref. 4704). Lateral line with a marked curve over the pectoral fin. Behind the pelvic fins two backward curved thorns. Body slender, translucent and shaped like a sole (Ref. 35388).
Live on mixed or muddy bottoms. Feed on small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 4704).
Aldebert, Y., M. Desoutter and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Bothidae. p. 1027-1036. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5979)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.4 - 19.5, mean 10.8 °C (based on 1350 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00515 - 0.00738), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=7.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 125 [60, 277] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.19 [0.68, 2.00] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.294 [0.153, 0.542] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.5 [14.6, 58.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.6 [5.7, 57.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.906 [0.609, 1.298] mg/100g (wet weight);