Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Argyrosomus: Greek, argyros = silvered, silver + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 400 m (Ref. 27121), usually 15 - 150 m (Ref. 27121). Subtropical; 13°C - 24°C (Ref. 3593); 11°N - 27°S, 43°E - 51°E
Indian Ocean: endemic to Madagascar (Ref. 11025). Reports from "Ghana to South Africa" (Ref. 57396) refer to Argyrosomus regius and Argyrosomus coronus (Ref. 11025).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4336); common length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); max. published weight: 71.0 kg (Ref. 5369); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 12198)
Found in lower reaches of rivers, estuaries, rocky reefs, ocean beaches and on the continental shelf down to 150 m (Ref. 9772). Caught near the bottom and in mid-water. Feed mainly at night or in turbid waters (Ref. 27121), preying on cuttlefish (Ref. 27121), fishes, crabs, prawns, and worms (Ref. 9772).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.4 - 27.6, mean 25.9 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00336 - 0.00985), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.03; tm=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.9 [11.1, 143.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.54 [0.23, 1.69] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.2, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.627 [0.302, 1.286] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [9.4, 107.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.3 [3.2, 42.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.614 [0.390, 1.093] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.