Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogonichthys: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 65 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 4 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Inhambane (Ref. 4329) and east to the Hawaiian Islands and Rapa, north to southern Japan; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 3.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 8. Olive brown with irregular dark spots and streaks; speckled fins; normally with a dark line from eye to origin of LL and stripe from eye to angle of preopercle (Ref. 4329, 48635). Developed gill rakers 5-7. A distinctive small white spot centrally at base of caudal fin (Ref. 48635).
Adults occur inshore (Ref. 7300). Found among rubble of reef flats and 'dead' reefs (Ref. 1602, 58302). Benthic and benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Secretive (Ref. 48635), nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Eggs are incubated orally (Ref. 205). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Displays obligate monogamy where a one-to-one pair is established irrespective of resource abundance (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 2622 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 205 [109, 404] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.05 [0.64, 2.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.177 [0.095, 0.327] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.2 [10.6, 49.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.5 [23.3, 279.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.73 [1.10, 2.71] mg/100g (wet weight);