Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 18°S
Western Pacific: Malaysia to Moluccas, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Rowley Shoals. Reported from New Caledonia (Ref. 11889).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Found in shallow well protected coastal bays, commonly found under jetties, hiding in dark areas (Ref. 48635); also in inshore rocky areas and among branching coral (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.1 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 2051 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 132 [77, 235] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.867 [0.559, 1.520] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.161 [0.095, 0.268] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.8 [12.7, 48.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 73.8 [23.3, 233.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [1.00, 2.27] mg/100g (wet weight);