Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical; 43°N - 34°S
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to New England (Ref. 47377), Massachusetts, USA, Bermuda, and Bahamas to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico. Central Atlantic: St. Helena I., Ascension I. (Ref. 89107, 98447).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626)
Commonly found on hard or semi-hard bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 9626); in harbors and around pilings and sea walls, out to outer reefs.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240, 39366, 58874). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.4 - 27.8, mean 24.9 °C (based on 572 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00694 - 0.02284), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 117 [67, 256] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.15 [0.73, 1.76] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.182 [0.111, 0.296] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.7 [16.1, 55.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 111 [44, 283] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.53 [1.06, 2.20] mg/100g (wet weight);