Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 20°N - 28°S, 94°E - 168°E
Western Central Pacific: Indo-Malay Archipelago to Solomon Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Found in shallow coral reefs around lagoons and sheltered bays (Ref. 36661). In small groups, usually sheltering near long-spined urchins or large anemones in seagrasses (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1997. The marine fishes of tropical Australia and south-east Asia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia. 292 p. (Ref. 36661)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 2158 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00201 - 0.01253), b=3.26 (3.04 - 3.48), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .