Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Antigoniidae
Etymology: Antigonia: Daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta, who defied her uncle, king Creon, by performing funeral rites over her brother Polynices and was condemned to be immured in a cave (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 900 m (Ref. 5217), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 4952). Tropical; 44°N - 51°S, 77°W - 153°W
Worldwide in subtropical and tropical oceans. Eastern Atlantic: France to Namibia, including Azores and Madeira. Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA and Gulf of Mexico to [Brazil according to Ref. 7251] Uruguay (Ref. 47377). Pacific Ocean: Hawaii (Ref. 7490), Japan (Ref. 559) and Nazca and Sala-y-Gomez (Ref. 50546).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); max. published weight: 170.00 g (Ref. 5217)
Adults are found close to bottom while juveniles occur in mid water (Ref. 4952). Feed on small mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 5288). Not regularly marketed (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990. Caproidae. p. 641-642. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4504)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.5 - 23.6, mean 15.9 °C (based on 997 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02754 (0.02035 - 0.03728), b=2.97 (2.88 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 116 [66, 211] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.596 [0.308, 1.106] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.4, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.257 [0.141, 0.452] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.1 [22.2, 97.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.8 [13.8, 160.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.935 [0.615, 1.402] mg/100g (wet weight);