Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 108 m (Ref. 58426). Polar; 84°N - 36°N, 127°W - 6°E (Ref. 57357)
North Atlantic: Greenland to North Carolina. Also in the northeast Atlantic (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Occurs farther offshore in salinities of 30-36 ppt. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178. Benthic. Feeds on crustaceans and worms (Ref. 58426); mainly on copepod, Calanus finmarchicus (Ref. 5951).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.2 - 12.8, mean 7.2 °C (based on 218 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00219 (0.00122 - 0.00393), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.33-0.38; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .