Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.2 - 8.2; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468)
Indo-West Pacific: South Africa to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Australia..
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4180)
Found in shallow waters; common in estuaries; may enter lower reaches of rivers. Can tolerate fresh water only within a narrow temperature (23-26°C). Feeds mainly at night on crustaceans, but also takes small fishes, fish eggs and larvae in estuaries (Ref. 7248). Marketed dried, salted and fresh (Ref.97399).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A., 1986. Ambassidae. p. 297-298. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4180)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1254 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00775 - 0.02460), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (k=1.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .